News from climate program RMI

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Dear Thomas,

As many in the US prepare for the Thanksgiving holiday, all of us at Rocky Mountain Institute around the world express our deep gratitude to all of our friends, partners, and donors whose support has inspired, fueled, and sustained the critical work that we do to drive a clean, prosperous, and secure low-carbon future.

In the spirit of thanks, we are proud to share with you RMI’s 2019 Annual Report which highlights what we’ve accomplished together with a vast and growing network of international partners in government, the private sector, other NGOs, and philanthropists dedicated to curbing climate change and building a brighter energy future for all.

In the report you can see how our strategic approach to THINK, DO, and SCALE is guiding efforts to boldly tackle the toughest long-term problems in our energy system at a global scale, and the tangible impacts that show hope—when applied through action each day—can change entire systems and people’s lives.

A few highlights include:

Think

Lowering the cost of minigrid access: Minigrids in the Money: Six Ways to Reduce Minigrid Costs by 60% for Rural Electrification shows how to overcome the barriers that minigrids face in reaching their potential to bring clean, reliable energy to communities far from an electric grid and efficiently serve the millions of people in the region who lack access to electricity.

Do

REALIZING the promise of affordable net-zero energy homes for low-income families: RMI’s REALIZE initiative is supporting pilot projects to retrofit net-zero energy multifamily housing in California, New York, and the cities of Boston and Minneapolis to bring low-income communities affordable, clean, reliable energy.

Scale

Collaboratively spinning off RMI’s Business Renewables Center to Become the Renewable Energy Buyers Alliance (REBA): REBA is a trade association representing corporate powerhouses that collectively aim to bring more than 60 gigawatts (GW) of new renewables online in the US by 2025. That’s roughly equivalent to 189 MILLION solar photovoltaic panels.

We hope what you read in these pages inspires optimism and pride in our shared successes, and fuels our resolve for the important work ahead. I invite you to join myself, and RMI Managing Directors Richenda van Leeuwen and Jennifer Stokes for a live webcast: Hope in the Global Push to Address Climate Crisis where we will share RMI’s latest research on the white spaces global leaders must rally around to achieve a 1.5°C future. RSVP today.

Also, mark your calendars for Giving Tuesday, a global day of giving on December 3, 2019. We hope RMI is one of your trusted non-profits of choice this giving season.

Thank you again to all of our partners for the enduring support that’s making real impact possible. And, to all of you celebrating Thanksgiving, we wish you a very happy holiday.
Sincerely,

Jules Kortenhorst
CEO, Rocky Mountain Institute

 

 

 

ABOUT RMI

 

Rocky Mountain Institute transforms global energy use to create a clean, prosperous, and secure low-carbon future.

 

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Interview with Thomas Hollyday about his new thriller, Enemy Excellent interview by Lisa Shea, Boston, about Thomas Hollyday and the writing of his new thriller, Enemy. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofXL_Es5j-A ENEMY by Thomas Hollyday. #freeEbook 30 Aug. As the climate crisis infects our air with CO2, nature attacks humanity. A Chesapeake inventor and his idealistic girlfriend fight for their lives against the deadly ravenous onslaught. Kindle 5.0 Goodreads 5.0 https://www.amazon.com/Enemy-River-Sunday-Romance-Mysteries/dp/B089CSW3ZC/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1592497275&sr=1-1

Solar power plants

Here’s how they work.Heat in a solar thermal system is guided by five basic principles: heat gain; heat transfer; heat storage; heat transport; and heat insulation.[53] Here, heat is the measure of the amount of thermal energy an object contains and is determined by the temperature, mass and specific heat of the object. Solar thermal power plants use heat exchangers that are designed for constant working conditions, to provide heat exchange. Copper heat exchangers are important in solar thermal heating and cooling systems because of copper’s high thermal conductivity, resistance to atmospheric and water corrosion, sealing and joining by soldering, and mechanical strength. Copper is used both in receivers and in primary circuits (pipes and heat exchangers for water tanks) of solar thermal water systems.[54] Heat gain is the heat accumulated from the sun in the system. Solar thermal heat is trapped using the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse effect in this case is the ability of a reflective surface to transmit short wave radiation and reflect long wave radiation. Heat and infrared radiation (IR) are produced when short wave radiation light hits the absorber plate, which is then trapped inside the collector. Fluid, usually water, in the absorber tubes collect the trapped heat and transfer it to a heat storage vault. Heat is transferred either by conduction or convection. When water is heated, kinetic energy is transferred by conduction to water molecules throughout the medium. These molecules spread their thermal energy by conduction and occupy more space than the cold slow moving molecules above them. The distribution of energy from the rising hot water to the sinking cold water contributes to the convection process. Heat is transferred from the absorber plates of the collector in the fluid by conduction. The collector fluid is circulated through the carrier pipes to the heat transfer vault. Inside the vault, heat is transferred throughout the medium through convection. Heat storage enables solar thermal plants to produce electricity during hours without sunlight. Heat is transferred to a thermal storage medium in an insulated reservoir during hours with sunlight, and is withdrawn for power generation during hours lacking sunlight. Thermal storage mediums will be discussed in a heat storage section. Rate of heat transfer is related to the conductive and convection medium as well as the temperature differences. Bodies with large temperature differences transfer heat faster than bodies with lower temperature differences. Heat transport refers to the activity in which heat from a solar collector is transported to the heat storage vault. Heat insulation is vital in both heat transport tubing as well as the storage vault. It prevents heat loss, which in turn relates to energy loss, or decrease in the efficiency of the system. Heat storage for electric base loads[edit] Main article: Thermal energy storage Heat storage allows a solar thermal plant to produce electricity at night and on overcast days. This allows the use of solar power for baseload generation as well as peak power generation, with the potential of displacing both coal- and natural gas-fired power plants. Additionally, the utilization of the generator is higher which reduces cost. Even short term storage can help by smoothing out the “duck curve” of rapid change in generation requirements at sunset when a grid includes large amounts of solar capacity. Heat is transferred to a thermal storage medium in an insulated reservoir during the day, and withdrawn for power generation at night. Thermal storage media include pressurized steam, concrete, a variety of phase change materials, and molten salts such as calcium, sodium and potassium nitrate.[55][56] Steam accumulator[edit] The PS10 solar power tower stores heat in tanks as pressurized steam at 50 bar and 285 °C. The steam condenses and flashes back to steam, when pressure is lowered. Storage is for one hour. It is suggested that longer storage is possible, but that has not been proven in an existing power plant.[57] Molten salt storage[edit] See also: Thermal energy storage The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity even when the sun isn’t shining.[58] A variety of fluids have been tested to transport the sun’s heat, including water, air, oil, and sodium, but Rockwell International[59] selected molten salt as best.[60] Molten salt is used in solar power tower systems because it is liquid at atmospheric pressure, provides a low-cost medium to store thermal energy, its operating temperatures are compatible with today’s steam turbines, and it is non-flammable and nontoxic. Molten salt is used in the chemical and metals industries to transport heat, so industry has experience with it. The first commercial molten salt mixture was a common form of saltpeter, 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. Saltpeter melts at 220 °C (430 °F) and is kept liquid at 290 °C (550 °F) in an insulated storage tank. Calcium nitrate can reduce the melting point to 131 °C, permitting more energy to be extracted before the salt freezes. There are now several technical calcium nitrate grades stable at more than 500 °C. This solar power system can generate power in cloudy weather or at night using the heat in the tank of hot salt. The tanks are insulated, able to store heat for a week. Tanks that power a 100-megawatt turbine for four hours would be about 9 m (30 ft) tall and 24 m (80 ft) in diameter. The Andasol power plant in Spain is the first commercial solar thermal power plant using molten salt for heat storage and nighttime generation. It came on line March 2009.[61] On July 4, 2011, a company in Spain celebrated an historic moment for the solar industry: Torresol’s 19.9 MW concentrating solar power plant became the first ever to generate uninterrupted electricity for 24 hours straight, using a molten salt heat storage.[62] In 2016 SolarReserve proposed a 2 GW, $5 billion concentrated solar plant with storage in Nevada. In January 2019 Shouhang Energy Saving Dunhuang 100MW molten salt tower solar energy photothermal power station project was connected to grid and started operating. Its configuration includes an 11-hour molten salt heat storage system and can generate power consecutively for 24 hours.[63] Phase-change materials for storage[edit] Phase Change Material (PCMs) offer an alternative solution in energy storage.[64] Using a similar heat transfer infrastructure, PCMs have the potential of providing a more efficient means of storage. PCMs can be either organic or inorganic materials. Advantages of organic PCMs include no corrosives, low or no undercooling, and chemical and thermal stability. Disadvantages include low phase-change enthalpy, low thermal conductivity, and flammability. Inorganics are advantageous with greater phase-change enthalpy, but exhibit disadvantages with undercooling, corrosion, phase separation, and lack of thermal stability. The greater phase-change enthalpy in inorganic PCMs make hydrate salts a strong candidate in the solar energy storage field.[65] Use of water[edit] A design which requires water for condensation or cooling may conflict with location of solar thermal plants in desert areas with good solar radiation but limited water resources. The conflict is illustrated by plans of Solar Millennium, a German company, to build a plant in the Amargosa Valley of Nevada which would require 20% of the water available in the area. Some other projected plants by the same and other companies in the Mojave Desert of California may also be affected by difficulty in obtaining adequate and appropriate water rights. California water law currently prohibits use of potable water for cooling.[66] Other designs require less water. The Ivanpah Solar Power Facility in south-eastern California conserves scarce desert water by using air-cooling to convert the steam back into water. Compared to conventional wet-cooling, this results in a 90% reduction in water usage at the cost of some loss of efficiency. The water is then returned to the boiler in a closed process which is environmentally friendly.[67] Conversion rates from solar energy to electrical energy[edit] Of all of these technologies the solar dish/Stirling engine has the highest energy efficiency. A single solar dish-Stirling engine installed at Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) produces as much as 25 kW of electricity, with a conversion efficiency of 31.25%.[68] Solar parabolic trough plants have been built with efficiencies of about 20%.[citation needed] Fresnel reflectors have an efficiency that is slightly lower (but this is compensated by the denser packing). The gross conversion efficiencies (taking into account that the solar dishes or troughs occupy only a fraction of the total area of the power plant) are determined by net generating capacity over the solar energy that falls on the total area of the solar plant. The 500-megawatt (MW) SCE/SES plant would extract about 2.75% of the radiation (1 kW/m²; see Solar power for a discussion) that falls on its 4,500 acres (18.2 km²).[69] For the 50 MW AndaSol Power Plant[70] that is being built in Spain (total area of 1,300×1,500 m = 1.95 km²) gross conversion efficiency comes out at 2.6%. Furthermore, efficiency does not directly relate to cost: on calculating total cost, both efficiency and the cost of construction and maintenance should be taken into account.

What may be coming in climate

 

Adaptation. Credit: blog.usejournal.com

“All we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given us.”

—The Fellowship of the Ring, J.R.R. Tolkein

We have reached a critical point in the climate change saga.  The global temperature is now one degree Celsius higher than the pre-industrial average, and the latent effect of fossil fuel emissions already in the atmosphere is enough to warm the planet another half degree.  This means that we will reach the critical 1.5-degree threshold that portends severe and irreversible climate change even without another iota of emissions.

Add to this the fact that there are no indications that the world is prepared to cut fossil fuel emissions (they are actually going to continue to increase), and it is understandable that those who concern themselves with this subject are beginning to doubt our ability to avoid a full-blown crisis.  This doubt has caused some to begin to turn their thoughts towards adapting to what increasingly seems to be the inevitable.

The dictionary defines “adapt” as follows: “to bring one thing into correspondence with another.”  In other words, to establish a stable relationship in which tensions are reconciled and a tranquil status quo can be established.  Such a modus vivendi is possible, however, only if there is a stable state to which we can adapt.

Unfortunately, it will take the planet hundreds or thousands of years to return to thermodynamic equilibrium, depending on how hard we force the climate with our carbon dioxide emissions.  During this time the climate will undergo continuous change, and this means that we will not be able to adapt to it.  Instead we will be continuously fighting a rear-guard action, as it were, both preparing for and reacting to ever-worsening conditions.

This will be the new normal, and it will increasingly challenge the ability of individuals and societies to survive.  There will be no détente with the forces of nature that we have unleashed.  We cannot adapt; we can only extemporize. We will continuously prepare, repair, and relocate.

Let me hasten to add that I am not endorsing a fatalistic do-nothing policy.  Of course we need to do our best to prepare for the oncoming crisis.  I am merely pointing out that it is misleading to call this “adapting” because mankind will never again be at peace with the climate.  That was the Holocene.  We are now in the Anthropocene.

Let’s say that you are the mayor of Miami.  The sea level is rising.  You want to build a sea wall, but how high do you build it?  Do you build it for the sea level in 2040, in 2060, in 2100, or beyond?  Whatever height you choose, the sea will eventually rise to crest it.

And, how do you react when saltwater begins to permeate the sandy ground that underlays south Florida and begins to invade the freshwater aquifers that provide Miami and other cities in the area with drinking water?  You cannot build a wall to contain it.  All you can do is pipe water in from farther inland (if it is available) or move.  You can call this adaptation if you like, but it seems more like capitulation.  We will be doing a lot of capitulating as we defer to mother nature’s increasing hostility.

Now let’s say you are the mayor of Dharan, Saudi Arabia, one of the hottest cities in the world.  In a recent heat wave, the city recorded a wet-bulb temperature of 92 degrees Fahrenheit.  The wet-bulb temperature is taken with a thermometer wrapped in a wet cloth with air blowing over it.  It gives the equivalent dry-bulb temperature at 100% humidity.  Weather reports give dry bulb temperatures, but the wet bulb temperature is more important when measuring human tolerance to heat and humidity.  When the wet-bulb temperature reaches 95 degrees Fahrenheit, the body can no longer cool itself because it cannot perspire.  Humans can only survive for about six hours at this temperature.

As the world continues to warm, heat waves in Dharan will increase in frequency and wet-bulb temperatures will get closer and closer to 95 degrees.  Eventually they will begin to exceed it on a regular basis and living in Dharan will become like living in hell.  As mayor, how to you adapt to this?

You will need to run air conditioners a lot more.  Dharan is home to Aramco, the Saudi Arabian national oil company, so the city should have ample oil to produce electricity to power its air conditioners.  But this increases carbon dioxide emissions, which compounds the fundamental problem.  Some other things you will also need to do:  increase the city budget for energy use, provide for energy assistance to the poor, restrict the use of vehicles to curtail emissions, and issue a climate curfew to restrict outdoor activity during the hottest times of the day.

The growing health hazards of living in such a hot climate and the deteriorating quality of life will eventually force residents to relocate to cooler climes.  There will be nothing you can do as mayor to stop it.  By the end of the century, climate scientists expect that much of the Middle East will be uninhabitable. This will put tens of millions of climate refugees on the road headed north with frightful social, economic, and geopolitical consequences.

Over the next three decades, droughts, floods, and heat waves will reduce global agricultural production by ten to twenty percent while at the same time we will add another two billion souls to the human family.  How do we adjust to this?  We can ration food up to a point, but what happens when there is simply not enough food to go around?  We can’t adapt to this, and many will die.  The poorest among us will be the first, but no one will be spared if the planet continues to warm.

I don’t think that most people have a clear idea of how dramatically conditions will change and how long that change will go on.  What we can try to do is coexist with the change, survive the change, struggle to cope with the change, and generally just keep our heads above water (metaphorically and literally).  What we cannot do is adapt to the change.

Sisyphus was the life of the party.  He was always kidding around and never showed the gods on Mt Olympus much deference.  He also liked to play tricks on them, thinking that he was smarter than the lot of them.  Zeus became irritated at this arrogance and condemned Sisyphus to endlessly rolling a boulder up a steep hill, only to lose control of it near the top.  The boulder rolled back down the hill and Sisyphus had to start the whole process over again and again.  Zeus wanted to remind Sisyphus who was boss.

Somewhere along the way we lost our sense of place and purpose in the world – ideas that gave depth and meaning and purpose to our lives.  Without them, we are at sea.  The disorientation is intolerable, so either we settled for an indolent aimlessness, or we sought substitutes:  fame, money, power, influence, friendships, entertainment, recreation, hobbies, and other pastimes and purposes to fill the emptiness inside.  But these are inadequate substitutes because they don’t contain or represent a deeper meaning or purpose for us.  They are only what they are.  So, we pursued them to excess in a futile effort to fill the unyielding inner emptiness, and in the process, began to destroy the world we live in and depend upon.  But having lost our connectedness to nature, we had become either blind to or indifferent to the damage we were inflicting.

Comes now Mother Nature, like Zeus, to punish us for our arrogance, our irresponsible waywardness, and our callous disregard for her.  She comes to condemn us to endlessly adjusting to a harsh and unstable climate – our version of the Sisyphean fate.  But our punishment, unlike that of Sisyphus, will not be eternal.  Either we will survive the catastrophe that we created, and the torment will end, or we will not survive and will join the 99.9% of all other species that have ever existed and which have become extinct.

Whether we survive this punishment is a question we cannot answer.  What we can say is that, the sooner we get started on serious efforts to curtail fossil fuel emissions, the more we improve our chances.


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efficiency of solar in shade

Does solar work in the shade?

Does solar work in the shade?

People around the globe are shifting towards renewable sources of energy to meet their power needs. While solar power is a cost-efficient and effective way to meet the world’s power requirements, the important factor to consider is whether solar panels can really make sense in the areas of shade.

Do solar panel works in shade? Yes, Solar panels can work in shaded areas as well as during cloudy days but their output power capacity is compromised due to less exposure to sunlight. Certain solutions like solar panel design and roof orientation can help prevent an excessive power loss caused due to less sunlight exposure.

People generally assume that solar panels are of no use unless exposed to bright sunlight. However, this is a misconception and modern solar panels are capable enough to work even in poor light conditions. Still, there is a need to analyze the effect of shade on the solar panel as well as how you can minimize it and what sort of panel design is right for fulfilling your power needs given the shading conditions of your location. In this article, we will examine the sources of shading, its effects on the efficiency of the solar panel and how the efficiency losses can be mitigated.

What causes shading and does it affect solar panels?

As discussed above, shading plays a very crucial part in the efficiency of the solar panels. There are different sources that can be a cause of shade on solar panels. The most common sources are listed below:

  1. Trees – Many residential areas that are located in green spaces face shading issues. The trees near the solar panel setups can cause shading issues by encroaching the setups.
  2. Clouds – Weather plays a very important factor in determining the amount of sunlight reaching the solar panels. Clouds do not completely block the sunlight but they do reduce the amount of sunlight exposure on to the panel which reduces the amount of solar energy harvested to electricity
  3. Other Panels – Solar panels can also be shaded by neighboring panels especially when there are ground installations. If incorrectly installed, nearby panels can caste a shade on the panels in the same system.
  4. Roof and Buildings – Panels are greatly affected by the roofs and surrounding buildings if the system is located in an overly populated area. Based on the peak hours of the day, surrounding buildings and roofs can block sunlight to the panels

Now that we have looked at the sources of shading lets discuss the impact it has on the solar panels.

Decrease in Efficiency-A solar panel consists of the solar cells. Those solar cells which are covered in shade will stop working so if 50% of the panel’s solar cells are under shade, then solar panel’s efficiency will be reduced to half but shading does not completely halt the electricity production. Most of the modern solar panels can work even in poor light conditions but at the expense of efficiency. The power loss varies based on the amount of shade the panels are facing.

If you cannot avoid shade, then the best option is to use the shade tolerant solar cells like Uni-solar etc.

Shortens life span –When some of the solar cells in a solar panel are not working due to shading then other cells free of shade work harder in order to compensate the power losses. In this process, the unshaded solar cells might get overheated or burn out due to over performing. This reduces the lifetime of the solar panel and can result in permanent damage to the PV system. Bypass diodes can be used to minimize the effect of partial shading on the solar panel.

Do solar panels need direct sunlight to make sense?

A lot of people wonder whether direct sunlight is needed for solar to make it a feasible option economically or not. Yes, indeed, the more sun exposure there is, then more output gets generated from the panels. It is true that direct sunlight provides optimum conditions for the panel to operate however even in the cloudy weather, some of the light may still reach your solar panels to make them work.

It is estimated that a solar panel will be 40% less effective during cloudy weather conditions.

In a grid-tied solar panel, the excess amount of power generated during a sunny day, gets fed back to the utility grid in exchange of energy credits. This is done via a device known as a net meter which measures the electricity going to and from the grid. The energy credits can be utilized to draw power at night and on a cloudy day.

The term “Peak sun hours” refers to hours during which the intensity of sunlight is maximum, i.e., 1,000 watts per square meter. Peak sun hours provide an accurate description of how much energy your panels can produce in a day.

On average, the peak sun hours are between 3 to 4 hours a day.

How do you calculate how many sun-hours an area gets?

Solar map tools can be used to estimate the average amount of sun hours of a location however it only gives you the estimate based on longitude and latitude coordinates of a location. In order to get an accurate reading many other factors about a location should be taken into consideration before drawing any conclusions.

Some software tools like Aurora can use the satellite imagery of a location and estimate the sun hours based off that information alone. But these tools are not always 100% accurate and it takes a lot of time to learn how to use them if you’re not all that computer savvy.

Solar installation companies, on the other hand, should have their own proprietary software that can also provide an accurate estimation of sun hours of a location to its customers based on factors like roof orientation, shading, weather etc. Many other metrics can be estimated from the solar energy analysis of a location such as a target offset of solar energy and estimates of 20 to 30-year savings.

Solar companies usually provide an on-site investigation once you sign up to go solar with them. These companies have certified solar techs who uses a tool called “sun eye” to provide more accurate shading analysis of a location to ensure that the solar panel can meet the companies estimated amount of production on a particular location. If in the event it is determined that your location does have some shading issues, there are certain ways to optimize the solar panel productivity.

How can issues of shading be resolved to boost solar panel productivity?

Solar panel systems can be altered and modified in a number of different ways to overcome shading losses. Some of the common methods devised are as below:

  1. Stringing Arrangements – Modules in a solar panel system are connected in series to form strings that are connected in parallel to an inverter. The power output of a string can be brought down significantly if it has a shaded module in it. However, the output of a parallel string cannot be reduced by a shaded module in one string. Hence the system can be optimized by classifying shaded and unshaded modules into different strings. For example, in systems that are commonly deployed in the market or businesses, modules that receive shade can be grouped into one string while the remaining modules that receive no shade can be grouped into another string.
  2. Bypass Diodes – They are devices in a module in which the current can go past the regions of the module that are covered by shade. Utilization of the bypass diodes allows unshaded cell strings to allow current to flow through them. However, the drawback of using these devices is that we cannot benefit from the working from the solar cells which have been bypassed by the flowing current.  Roughly, around 3 bypass diodes will be required for a panel having 60 solar cells.
  3. Module-level Power Electronics (MLPEs) – MLPEs are devices that are connected to each shaded solar panel module in a PV system to boost their power output by the use of maximum power point tracking. MLPEs commonly include DC optimizers and microinverters.
  4. DC Optimizers – DC optimizers tend to increase the power output of an individual solar module, by maintaining the performance of other modules as well, by changing the voltages and current at the output of a particular solar module. For instance, a DC optimizer will boost the output current of a shaded solar panel producing electricity with a lower current by decreasing its voltage so that the current through it is of the same value as the current flowing in the unshaded panels. This ensures that the same amount of power is produced by all the panels.
  5. Microinverters – The DC -AC conversion in each panel can be done by having each panel connected to a small inverter instead of having a single inverter for the entire system since all the modules will be connected in parallel and each microinverter will work at its MPPT, the functioning of other panels would not be affected. This will not let the efficiency of the panels be affected due to the shading effect of the panels.
  6. Ground Mount PV System– In Ground-mounted PV systems, the panel orientation can be optimized as well as there are no space constraints. They also have better ground clearance between the panel and the ground.

One thought on “Does solar work in the shade?”

  1. I was told by a solar company that I did not qualify because of the pitch of my garage roof. I am very much interested in solar energy for my home. That company suggested ground panels but said it would take up 1/3 of my tiny yard. What are my other options?

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Fresh water for cats

.  I wanted to inquired about the large sized solar sipper.  We recommend them to clients who feed and care for homeless cats in our city.  We absolutely love the solar sippers for cat caretakers who need to supply fresh water for outdoor cats but cannot use an electric heated water bowl for lack of an accessible electrical outlet.  In years past, I have noticed the solar sippers being offered on Amazon but this year I cannot find them anywhere.  Amazon stated that they are out of stock, possibly indefinitely.  I was very sad to hear this.  Is there any way your customers can still access the large sized solar sipper?  We receive questions about this constantly during the cold winter months.  I would love to get my hands on them again.  If you have any information for me on this subject I would be so grateful.  I appreciate your time.  Have a lovely day.

 

Give outdoor creatures the same loving fresh water your indoor pets receive for morning drinking. Solar Sipper Model 10008 portable all season durable easy to clean outdoor water station for wild birds is safe, with no electric wires to chew or peck. Keeps water covered and clean from deadly bacteria. Insulates with air space to keep water warm in winter and cool in summer. Passive solar black top design uses sunlight to keep inner water ice free in ambient wind free outer air to about 20 deg. F. Eight inch diameter holds one quart fresh water. Bird has innovative 1 1/2 inch drinking hole( pet has 4” hole), Berry red outer container attracts birds. Google the tests at solar sipper 21415. Black top painted tanks were used long ago in Old West USA to keep winter drinking water free of ice for prairie cattle.

https://www.bing.com/search?q=solar+sipper+for+dogs&FORM=R5FD2

https://www.amazon.com/Commercial-Solar-Sipper/dp/B000K0P34I

 

cats and water

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How to save & take care of a kitten and feral cats - an advocacy tool kit

Alley Cat Allies Global Cat Day® is October 16

BETHESDA, Md. – October 14, 2019 – Alley Cat Allies and its supporters around the world will observe Global Cat Day® on Wednesday, October 16, with a commitment to save cats, including stray and feral cats, from being killed.

Becky Robinson, the president and founder of Alley Cat Allies, is asking everyone who values the lives of cats to sign the Alley Cat Allies’ Global Cat Day Pledge online.

“The Global Cat Day Pledge includes the fundamental principle that all cats have the right to live their lives, and it guides everything we do to protect cats,” Robinson said. “We stand for humane, non-lethal programs for cats, and those who join us can take action to stop cats from being killed.”

Millions of cats and kittens are in life-threatening danger because felines are killed more than any other animal in shelters across the nation. Global Cat Day demands that community leaders abolish policies that result in the killing of cats; equip communities with lifesaving, humane policies like Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR); and change any policies that threaten cats’ health and safety.

TNR is the mainstream approach in which community cats, sometimes called feral cats, are humanely trapped, spayed or neutered, vaccinated, eartipped and returned to the outdoor homes where they live and thrive. As sound public policy, TNR reduces shelter intake, “euthanasia” and calls to animal services, which saves taxpayer dollars.

About Alley Cat Allies

Alley Cat Allies, headquartered in Bethesda, Md., is the global engine of change for cats. Alley Cat Allies is the leading advocacy organization dedicated to protecting and improving the lives of all cats through its innovative, cutting-edge programs. Founded in 1990, today Alley Cat Allies has grown into a powerful force with over half a million supporters. The organization has helped and inspired countless individuals, communities and other organizations to save and improve the lives of cats and kittens worldwide. Alley Cat Allies works with lawmakers, animal shelters and advocates to change attitudes and advance lifesaving policies that best serve the interests of cats. Alley Cat Allies’ website is www.alleycat.org, and the organization is active on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube.

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Will this gentrification affect wildlife access to drinking water?